pg. 16 “ In 2006, when Palestinians were offered their first taste of a free and fair election, they voted overwhelmingly for the religious nationalists of Hama over the more secular yet seemingly inept politicians of Fatah, the party founded by Yasir Arafat in 1958.”
Hamas are an Islamic fundamentalist group from Palestine that wishes to create an Islamic state in Israel. The group is most well known for their militant branch, which employs terrorism as their fighting force. However, the group also has schools, mosques and may other similar places. The group was not satisfied with the terms of an agreement made between Palestine and Israel, so they took matters into their own hands and utilized suicide bombing to advocate change. They have also shown up in politics and are starting to overtake their enemies, the Al Fatah. Overall, the group uses terrorism to gain territory on the precious West Bank and Gaza Strip in Israel.
“Hamas.” The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 04 September 2011.
pg. 16 “In 2006, when Palestinians were offered their first taste of a free and fair election, they voted overwhelmingly for the religious nationalists of Hama over the more secular yet seemingly inept politicians of Fatah, the party founded by Yasir Arafat in 1958.”
Formed in 1957 by Yasser Arafat, this group was the main body in the Palestinian Liberation Organization, which had aims of creating an Islamic state in Israel, called Palestine. At the time of its formation it was a fairly militant group, however, as more members joined they changed their policies to a more peaceful stance. Newer members of the Fatah were more open to negotiation and seem to be less militant and less prone to violence. Recently they have been overtaken by their enemies, the Hamas, who employ violent tactics to accomplish their goals.
“Fatah, al-.” The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather guide. Abington: Helicon, 2010. Credo Reference. Web. 04 September 2011.
pg. 16 “Gaza, the silver fallow land that has become Hama’s de facto stronghold, was cut off from the outside world.”
Gaza is the main city in the Gaza Strip. The Gaza Strip is located in the Middle East, next to the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt and Israel. Many Palestinian refugees live here in overcrowded and poverty stricken communities. This area is greatly fought over and is frequently brought up in Palestine- Israeli conflicts, which also makes it very difficult for the area to establish a stable economy. The people from Palestine, the Muslims, are constantly fighting against Israeli and Jewish occupation.
“Gaza Strip.” The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 04 September 2011.
“Gaza Strip, May 2005.” Map. Nation Master .NationMaster.com, n.d. Web. 6 September 2011.
pg.18 “The same could be said of the age of colonialism, in which the old imperial model of commercial relations among neighboring kingdoms was transformed into the more manageable, if less ethical, model of total economic domination of indigenous populations.”
Colonialism is a concept that is based upon the practice of colonization. Colonization was most utilized by the European powers, mainly to colonize North America and then later parts of Africa. During the process a foreign power, commonly a powerful nation, decides that they would like to rule another area and use the resources available there. Next, they move their military and governing officials into the country and overtake the governing body. Many times they force the natives into new religions, impose new laws and bring about an entire different culture. Almost all countries object to being colonized because it strips them of their national identity and subjects them to work that they do not reap the benefits of.
“Colonialism.” World of Sociology, Gale. Farmington: Gale, 2001. Credo Reference. Web. 05 September 2011.
pg.17 “Perhaps it should come as no surprise, then, that the region in which nationalism arose so late, and so often through the will of others, is the region in which it is now being most unmistakably subsumed by the rising tide of globalization.”
Nationalism is a movement built by individuals who feel passionately about their country. Citizens feel that their nation is superior and they would sacrifice almost anything for the nation’s benefit. They also feel that the nation should be placed over the individual and are opposed to globalization, which encourages a more worldly unity. These people are bound by common characteristics, whether it is race, religion or culture. However, nationalism can be detrimental to other nation-states because the feeling of superiority can cause tension between nations and could then lead to invasion and even takeover of other nations.
“nationalism.” The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 05 September 2011.
pg. 16 ““In 2006, when Palestinians were offered their first taste of a free and fair election, they voted overwhelmingly for the religious nationalists of Hama over the more secular yet seemingly inept politicians of Fatah, the party founded by Yasir Arafat in 1958.”
In the present day, Palestinians refers to a group of Arabs that lived in the state of Palestine. Palestine was an area in the Middle East that bordered the Jordan River and Mediterranean Sea, however, this area is modern day Israel. At the time of creation mainly Arabs, who were Muslims, inhabited the area until 1517 when the area became a British mandate. At that time a mass European migration of Jews began. The Jewish and Muslim populations did not get along and began to fight over who rightfully owned the land. Eventually the Jewish population won and Palestine became present day Israel. Ever since the takeover there has been conflict between the two parties.
“Palestinians.” Andromeda Encyclopedic Dictionary of World History. London: Andromeda, 2001. Credo Reference. Web. 05 September 2011.
“Palestine.” Andromeda Encyclopedic Dictionary of World History. London: Andromeda, 2001. Credo Reference. Web. 05 September 2011.
pg.16 “I wanted to visit the ruined village of Um al-Nasr, in northern Gaza, some miles away from lush Tel Aviv.”
A town located in the Gaza Strip that had what many called a “sewage tsunami.” The village had a sewage management facility that was created to handle the waste of 50,000 inhabitants but at the time of the accident was handling over three times that amount, roughly 190,000 people. The facility was way beyond its limit and one day the sewage overtook its containment vessel, flooding the nearby village. In the flood five people were killed and many more were injured. After the event authorities found out that the facility had already been leaking and had covered 110 acres with waste. This town is now know for their deadly and unsanitary “sewage tsunami.”
Times online. Times Newspapers Ltd, March 2007. Web. 5 September 2011.
pg.17 “My citizenship is American; my nationality, Iranian; my ethnicity, Persian; my culture, Middle Eastern; my religion, Muslim; my gender, male.”
Muslims are those who follow the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad and the religion he created, Islam. Muslims live their life in direct accordance with their God and believe that all laws should be based upon religious beliefs. They strictly follow the five main pillars of Islam as follows: “ shahada, formally witnessing the unity of God; salat, formally praying five times daily; zakat, providing for the poor; saram, fasting during the month of Ramadan; and hajj, completing a pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca.” After Muhammad’s death the religion spread very quickly and has become one of the world’s leading religions. Islam also has many variations, some of which are very militant and have a mission to convert the entire world to Islam.
“Islam.” World of Sociology, Gale. Farmington: Gale, 2001. Credo Reference. Web. 05 September 2011.
pg.18 “Globalization means many things to many people.”
Globalization is a phenomenon that has recently taken an immense role in our society. Globalization is a basic unification of the entire world. With this process national borders are broken down and people act towards more central and universal goals, establishing a worldly cooperation. The development of modern technology has greatly aided the movement, giving special recognition to the internet. With such a digital world, information can be exchanged almost instantly, enabling trading and exchange to happen faster and more efficiently. However, some people worry that the creation of too many powerful, non-government agencies will result in an economic, political, cultural or social crisis.
“globalization.” The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather guide. Abington: Helicon, 2010. Credo Reference. Web. 05 September 2011.
pg.15 “Ben-Gurion International Airport is a brash, beautiful, strikingly confident construction that, like much of Tel Aviv, looks as though it might have sprouted fully formed from the desert sands of the old Arab port city of Jaffa.”
Tel Aviv is a large city in Israel where almost one-third of the country’s population lives, almost all of whom are Jewish. It is the country’s largest metropolitan area and is very commercialized. Not only is it a large city center but also a tourist attraction with its many hotels and beaches. The city’s main industries are construction, textiles and food production.
“Tel Aviv.” The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather guide. Abington: Helicon, 2010. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
“Tel Aviv.” The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
pg. 130 “But the creation of the European Union (EU) has transformed this gaggle of sovereign states, which a mere sixty years ago nearly brought the continent to ruin, into what Winston Churchill liked to call “the United States of Europe.””
The European Union is a politically and economically strong union of many nations in Europe. They currently have 27 members and most all share a common currency, the euro. The idea of a union of European nations came about after both World Wars, when many Europeans wanted to settle the dispute, mainly between France and Germany. Many people thought that by uniting the two nations they would have to cooperate with one another and end the fighting. Therefore, the economies of the two began to be intertwined. As time passed other nations saw the prosperity that was brought about by joining and membership started to climb. Eventually they decided to adopt a common currency and are currently working on establishing a solid governing body for the entire European Union.
“European Union.” CIA World Factbook. Washington: CIA, 2009. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011
pg.130 “The European Union is an unprecedented geopolitical realignment the likes of which has not been seen since the end of the Roman Empire.”
The Roman Empire was a vast and powerful empire that was created around 753 B.C., most likely by two brothers named Romulus and Remus. The empire was centered around the city of Rome, which now lies in Italy and included land area from Europe, North Africa and parts of the Middle East. As time passed, rule transferred from multiple people to only one, Julius Caesar, and then moved on to Augustus, who was followed by many others. The empire had a very strong national government that created great infrastructure, but it gradually began to weaken. At first the empire split into half and eventually diminished and was overtaken.
“Roman Empire.” The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Houghton Mifflin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
pg.131 “For critics of globalization, the European Union is a nightmare of unfettered capitalism, cultural dilution, and, ultimately, the loss of national identity.”
Capitalism is a type of economic system where the people control the economy with as little government intervention as possible. In a capitalist economy individuals own most all of the means of production, decide who to employ, what they will make/do, and how much their good or service will be sold for. People believe that the government’s role is to sit back and watch. Capitalists believe that this type of economy is the best option for everyone. However, an economy with no governmental involvement is almost impossible. For example, the government had to step in and stop the practice of slavery, which the people initiated. The government also uses the taxes collected to fund public projects, such as roads, that individuals would not otherwise fund.
“capitalism.” The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
pg.131 “Over the last decade, as it has forged ahead with a slew of treaties and referenda to mind member states together more fully under a federal system (and to bring ever more members on board), a wave of xenophobia and ultranationalism has swept through Europe.”
Xenophobia is an excessive fear of people of other nationalities. Many people connect nationalism and xenophobia, saying that people feel so strongly about their nation that they are willing to fight others to prevent any change in their nationality, whether it is linguistic, cultural, political, or economical. This fear can also be manipulated by politicians or foreign leaders and used to gain support for their particular foreign policy perspective. Basically, they scare people into the feeling and believing the same policies as they do. Xenophobia is present in many powerful nations today, such as Africa, the United States and some countries in Europe.
“XENOPHOBIA.” Encyclopedia of Nationalism: Leaders, Movements, and Concepts. Oxford: Elsevier Science & Technology, 2000. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
pg.132 “The border of what we know today as Europe were established in large part through the continent’s encounter with Islam- from the shifting battle lines of the Crusades to the defense of the Hapsburg Empire against the Turks.”
The Hapsburg Empire does not refer directly to a land mass under the name, but rather a ruling body. Between the fifteenth and twentieth century’s in Europe one family lineage, the Hapsburgs, ruled many European countries. In fact, the family held so many royal positions that the time period became known as the Hapsburg Empire.
“HAPSBURGS.” Encyclopedia of World Trade From Ancient Times to the Present. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 2005. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
Drawing, “HAPSBURGS.” Encyclopedia of World Trade From Ancient Times to the Present. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 2005. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
pg.131 “Hence the sudden success of a host of unabashedly racist right-wing political parties such as the French National Front, the British National Party, and the Freedom Party of Austria, or the mainstream appeal of neofascist politicians such as France’s Jean-Marie Le Pen, Geert Wilders in the Netherlands, or the late Austrian agitator Jörg Haider.”
After World War II neofascism came about in Europe. Neofascists were ultranationalists who were definitely xenophobic. They felt that non-European immigrants were the ones causing problems in their country, and therefore did not want those people to immigrate to their country. Some people consider neofascists to be racist because of their intense hatred of people from foreign nations.
“neofascism.” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
“neofascist.” Dictionary of Politics and Government. London: A&C Black, 2004.Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
pg.132 “The border of what we know today as Europe were established in large part through the continent’s encounter with Islam- from the shifting battle lines of the Crusades to the defense of the Hapsburg Empire against the Turks.”
The Crusades were a confusing set of events from the past. While they were like military operations, they were based on religious goals. It all stemmed from the Christian tradition of making a pilgrimage to Palestine, where Jesus lived. Since the area was not primarily Christian at the time, the Pope wanted to convert those living in the area back to Christianity and take back the sacred land. To do this they sent in military personnel and raided towns, all the while feeling it was their religious duty. As time passed this method became very popular in Europe and crusades became more frequent.
“THE CRUSADES.” The Encyclopedia of World History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
pg.134 “I do not know what to make of them until a friend informs me that this was the slogan of a popular leaflet campaign launched by the right-wing British National Party (BNP).”
British National Party:
The British National Party is commonly known for its mostly male membership and racist views. The group is an offshoot of the National Front, who is also a very white racist group. The BNP, as it commonly referred to, attracts younger members and normally does not fair to well in political elections, however, recently their popularity has begun to rise.
“British National Party (BNP).” A Glossary of UK Government and Politics. Edinburg: Edinburgh University Press, 2007. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
“National Front.” Dictionary of British History. Aylesbury: Market House Books Ltd, 2002. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
pg.135 “On July 12, 2005, five days after the Jihadist attacks on the London Underground and bus system, a BNP flier was distributed around the country depicting the mangled, burned-out husk of bus number 30, which was destroyed in a suicidal blaze by Hasib Hussain, the youngest of the 7/7 bombers.”
The 7/7 Bombings in London were a very tragic event. Seven young Muslim men deiced that the best way to advocate their religion was to partake in suicide bombings in London. Now, these men set out to kill innocent citizens, mainly those who were not Muslim. The situation was not very well understood because the men were not “bad” citizens in their community. They were rather successful; therefore, it made it hard to predict what traits characterized people who were capable of similar violent actions. These men were from a radical form of Islam called Jihadism. Jihadists feel that everyone should be Muslim and those who are not are not worthy of living on the Earth. Overall, this situation was a tragic loss of life of many British citizens on account of seven radical Muslims pursuing their religion.
Kassimeris, George. “A Perpetual Crisisof Misunderstanding? Militant Jihadism and Global Security in a post-9/11 World.”Conference Papers — International Studies Association (2007): 1.Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.
pg.135 “Social movements are by no means a modern phenomenon, as demonstrated by the Zealots.”
The Zealots were a semi-violent Jewish faction. Zealots considered themselves “the agents of God to deliver their nation from the foreign oppressors, under a banner of ‘No rule but the Law — No King but God’.” They also considered themselves strong nationalists, and were strongly opposed to Roman presence in their territory. The group was also known as “dagger-men” because of their frequent use of assassinations to advocate their feelings.
“Zealots.” Andromeda Encyclopedic Dictionary of World History. London: Andromeda, 2001. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
“Zealots.” Who’s Who in the New Testament, Routledge. London: Routledge, 2002. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
Jihadism and al-Qa’ida: “And the most dangerous by far of these new transnational movements is the broad-based, global ideology of militant Islamic puritanism, of which al-Qa’ida is merely the most notorious and violent manifestation: Jihadism (Global Jihadism, to be precise).” Page 24
Jihadism: “‘Jihadism’ describes the beliefs and actions of Muslims of a certain type who aspire to ‘win the world for Allah’ but are prepared to force their way upon others, or hurt those they feel are ‘against Islam’ (i.e. their type of Islam). They are prepared to ignore the mainstream of their own faith in order to attack non-Muslim buildings, installations and personnel.”
Jihadism: The concept of Jihadism is a very important one when it comes to Aslan’s book. Although it is described throughout the book itself, it is still a very important term that the reader should understand before reading and while reading Beyond Fundamentalism because it has been an ever-present topic recently. In Arabic, jihad literally means “struggle.” Jihad implies that the struggle a person faces is the struggle to “win the world for Allah.” In his book, Aslan writes, “…the doctrine of jihad transcends these traditional definitions, becoming instead a means of devotion (Aslan p24),” meaning that it becomes, “…the protector of all other deeds (Aslan p24).”
Al-Qa’ida: The responsibility for the attacks on September 11, 2001 comes from al-Qa’ida (al-Qaeda), which we all know as the, “Islamic-extremist international terrorist organization, nominally controlled by Osama bin Laden (al-Qaeda par 1).” This name along with the term cosmic war is essential to know while reading Beyond Fundamentalism because when thinking back to the roots of recent dispute, it all goes back to September 11, 2001.
Islamofascism: “To talk about Jihadism as Islamofascism is to misunderstand both Jihadism and fascism.” Page 25
Islamofascism: “‘Islamofascism’ is usually used to mean radical Islamism, and/or to describe the push by some Islamist clerics to impose their version of religious orthodoxy on the state and citizenry.”
In Beyond Fundamentalism, Aslan notes, on page 25, that, “to talk about Jihadism as Islamofascism is to misunderstand both Jihadism and fascism.” According to Aslan, fascism and ultranationalism go hand-in-hand while Jihadism rejects to ideology of nationalism compared to Islam itself.
Hamas and Hizballah: “It has more in common with the Bolsheviks and the French revolutionaries than it does with militant Muslim nationalist groups such as Hamas and Hizballah.” Page 25
Hamas: Islamic fundamentalist organization formally founded by Sheikh Yassin Ahmed in 1988. Its militant wing, the Izzedine Al Qassam Brigades, played a major role in the Intifada, the Palestinian uprising in the Israeli-occupied territories from 1987, particularly in the economically deprived Gaza Strip, the Hamas heartland.
In the first chapter of Beyond Fundamentalism, Aslan briefly ties in Hamas and Hizballah with the Islamic ideologies of Jihadism and Islamofascism.
Hizballah: Quranic term for Muslims as opposed to idolators, in the early struggle for Islam. The term has been repeatedly adopted by movements within Islam (e.g. by Indonesian rebels in 1945), as, recently, by a radical group in the Lebanon, which retained links with Iran.
“An Islamist group such as Hizballah has no global agenda. Its money may come from Iran, but its agenda stops at the borders of Lebanon (Aslan p32).” When reading Aslan’s book, the reader must understand that he is speaking about a wide variety of topics. Hizballah, along with the Muslim Brotherhood , is an Islamist group that is centered in one specific area rather than worldwide, like al-Qaeda.
Modernity: “It is ironic that Jihadism is so often viewed as anitmodern. Jihadism does not reject modernity; it is a product of modernity.” Page 25
As we’ve discussed in class, modernity, as later described by Aslan on page 136, “is a tricky term to define. The concept tends to be associated with issues such as mass urbanization and rapid industrialization as societies transitioned from feudalism to capitalism. But one can argue that the hallmark of the modern age is the sudden shift in human consciousness that occurred when people began to realize that the accepted norms and values of society were not fixed or absolute.” Although this is described later in the book, the reader still needs an idea of the term and an understanding of how it has become more pertinent to recent history.
Salafism: “Jarret Brachman, the director of the Combatting Terrorism Center at West Point, traces Jihadism’s current incarnation as a global force to about 2003, through its roots go back to an early-twentieth-century Islamic revivalist movement known as Salafism (the term salaf refers to the original Companions of the Prophet Muhammad).” Page 26
Salafism: “Iin general opposed to Sufism and Shi’ism, which are regarded as heresies. They see their role as a movement to restore Islam from what they perceive to be innovations, superstitions, deviances, heresies and idolatries.”
“It was the hybridization of Salafism and Wahhabism—of Islamic political activism and Saudi puritanism—that would give birth to a new, ultraconservative, ultraviolet social movement of young Muslims properly termed Jihadism (Aslan 29).” Beginning as a progressive movement in Egypt and India, “whose adherents advocated reform and liberalization of traditional Islamic doctrine,” the most successful Salafist organization of the time was the Muslim Brotherhood (Aslan p27).
A Salafi is, “a member of a conservative Muslim reform movement, whose beliefs are based on reverence for the example set by the companions of the Prophet Mohammed and the generations immediately following, as well as adherence to a literal interpretation of the Qur’an and the Sunna.”
Muslim Brotherhood: “By far the most successful Salafist organization of the time was the Muslim Brotherhood. Founded in the 1920s by the Egyptian schoolteacher turned activist Hasan al-Banna, the Muslim Brotherhood began as a grassroots social movement dedicated to the gradual Islamization of society through religious welfare and education programs.” Page 27
The reader should be familiar with Islamist groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood because groups such as this one have a great deal of influence over everyday society. Over time, the Muslim Brotherhood has grown to set an educational, economic, military, and political root in society. The organization has been banned twice, in 1948 and in 1954, by the Egyptian government because of fear that the Muslim Brotherhood was growing too powerful. “The Muslim Brotherhood has given rise to a number of more militant and violent organizations, such as Hamas, Gama’a al-Islamiya and Islamic Jihad.”
Wahhabism: “Born in the vast desert wastelands of eastern Arabia, a region known as the Najd, Wahhabism (its adherents prefer the term “Muwahiddun” meaning “Unitarians”) is a militantly puritanical movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab in the middle of the eighteenth-century.” Page 29
Wahhabism: “School of mainstream Sunni Islam established by a Saudi radical reformer named Mohammed ibn Abdel-Wahhab (1703–1792) in the eighteenth century, whose idea of returning to a pure monotheistic Islam and stamping out Shi’ite and Sufi traditions was taken up by the Saudi family. The Saudis used his teaching as the ideological glue that held together three Saudi states, including the third one, founded in 1902 by King Fahd’s father, Abdel-Aziz ibn Saud. But the austere Sunni Islam of Wahhabism has come under unprecedented criticism since the September 11 attacks, with many Saudis arguing it has bred a fanatical view of Islam that is now threatening Saudi society itself as followers of bin Laden’s al-Qa’ida fight a campaign to bring down the House of Saud. These critics have been shocked by al-Qa’ida’s readiness to kill Saudis and other Muslims in their attempt to strike at foreigners and symbols of the Saudi state.”
Cosmic War: “Every Muslim has a duty to respond to the call of jihad, to rally under the banner of Islam, to come to its defense, and to join a cosmic war whose epicenter lies here, in Israel, at the nexus of nationalist and transnationalist identities, where secular and religious nationalisms collide, often with bloody consequences, where the very concept of cosmic war was born and where, according to Jewish, Christian, and Muslim tradition, the war will come to a final and fiery end.” Page 33
Every reader of Aslan’s book should have a good idea of what the term “cosmic war” refers to and means. “A war between religions is a battle between good and evil,” Jim Wallis writes in his review of Aslan’s book, and each reader should be able to distinguish what a cosmic war is and how destructive one can be simply because it is never ending.
“al-Qaeda.” The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather guide.
Abington: Helicon, 2010. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
Aslan, Reza. Beyond Fundamentalism: Confronting Religious Extremism in the age of
Globalization. Random House Trade Paperbacks: New York. 2010.
“Hamas.” The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather guide. Abington:
Helicon, 2010. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
“Hizballah” The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Ed. John Bowker. Oxford University Press,
2000. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Sweet Briar College. 7 September 2011
“Issues for today.” Need to Know? Islam. London: Collins, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 06
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“Popular Religion.” Pop Culture Arab World! Media, Arts, and Lifestyle. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2005.
Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.
“Salafi.” The Macquarie Dictionary. South Yarra: The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd., 2005. Credo Reference.
Web. 07 September 2011.
Deterritorialization and Globalization: “But the deterritorialization of Europe has altered the equation, making it impossible to separate Europe’s turbulent relationship with Islam from the larger questions of sovereignty and national identity that have arisen as a direct result of globalization.
Deterritorialization: the severance of social, political, or cultural practices from their native places and populations.
Globalization: to globalize is to develop or be developed so as to make possible international influence or operation.
It is said that, “globalization is leading to a deterritorialization of power, sovereignty, and identity,” which is important for the reader to understand because globalization is what is occurring in our world in the present day which is why we’re having to deal with confronting religious extremism.
British National Party: “The rise of the British National Party coincides with a rise in anti-EU sentiment throughout the United Kingdom. The BNP has become a receptacle for Euro-skepticism of all stripes, the party has most obviously benefited from Britons’ fears of globalization.”
BNP: “An extreme right-wing political party which developed in the 1980s as an offshoot of the National Front. It has won a small number of local council seats in England, notably in 2003.”
The British National Party is an important organization to understand and know a little about because Aslan talks about Islam in the United Kingdom. The British National Party is a border-line extremist group which relates because of extremism dealing with politics and religion around the world.
Hasib Hussain: “On July 12, 2005, five days after the Jihadist attacks on the London Underground and bus system, a BNP flier was distributed around the country depicting the mangled burned-out husk of buss number 30, which was destroyed in a suicidal blaze by Hasib Hussain, the youngest of the 7/7 bombers.
Hussain is an important name to know because of the significance of growing acts of terrorism on public transit systems and in public places since September 11, 2001.
Fundamentalism: “Just as modernity altered the way individuals understood their relationship to society at large, so did it fundamentally change the way individuals understood themselves (Aslan p136).”
Fundamentalism: “Combining both political and religious radicalism, fundamentalism constitutes a distinct, specific, modern social movement and ideology, promulgating adherence to a strict and intense interpretation of a scripture or holy text.”
The basis of Aslan’s book is dealing with fundamentalism and how it has affected everyday life since the days of religious conflicts years and years ago. Fundamentalism is an important term for readers to understand because it is talked about throughout Aslan’s entire book.
“British National Party (BNP).” Chambers Dictionary of World History. London: Chambers Harrap, 2005.
Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.
“F. Globalization, Deterritorialization, and the Transnationalization of Identities.” Encyclopedia of
Nationalism: Fundamental Themes. Oxford: Elsevier Science & Technology, 2000. Credo Reference.
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“fundamentalism.” Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
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“territorialization.” The Dictionary of Human Geography. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2009. Credo
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pg. 146 ‘…Europe’s arm of the Hizb ut-Tahrir- a salafist organization that, despite its rejection of violence…’ Hizb ut-Tahrir is a political party that stretches over the world that carries a pro-Islam anti-violence agenda.
Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem. “About Us.” Hizb Ut-Tahrir. Hizb Ut-Tahrir. Web. 06 Sept.
pg. 147 ‘…since 2002, the German police have raided…’ While in many countries it is illegal to racial profile in Germany it is allowed and is being used to try to track down militants. The main issues with Germany doing this is that Germany does have laws against investigating religious groups and the fact that the raids and taking of registration outside of mosques has caused friction between the Muslim Germans and the police.
Sackmann, Hendrik. “German Police Search Homes in Raid on Far-right – Yahoo! News.” Yahoo! News – Latest News & Headlines. Web. 06 Sept. 2011.
Pg. 147 ‘…takifi…’ Takifi is a word used for Islam extremists who focus on Muslims who they believe are non-believers. They are the ones who end up causing the most bloodshed in the Islamic countries. Islamagainstextremism. “Abu Qatada – A Misguided, Bloodthirsty Takfiri.” IslamAgainstExtremism.Com | Rebuttals and Clarifications. Articles. Web. 06 Sept. 2011
. pg.148 ‘Don’t you dare associate with those Ulama who follow their own whims…’ Ulama, or Ulema, are the leaders and major interpreters of the Koran. Tristam, Pierre. “Ulema or Ulama – What Is Ulema or Ulama in Islam.” Middle East News and Issues from About.com. About.com. Web. 06 Sept. 2011
Pg 149 ‘…Imama…’ Imama person who leads prayer at a mosque.Goettel, Diane. “What Is an Imam?” WiseGEEK: Clear Answers for Common Questions. Ed. Bronwyn Harris. WiseGEEK. Web. 06 Sept. 2011
Pg. 149 ‘ … “vernacular” forms of Islam dominate the religious landscape. Vernacular forms of Islam include the Sunni/Shia split in Islam. This is much the same to the Christian divide between Protestants and Catholics. Amin, Hussein A. “The Origins of the Sunni/Shia Split in Islam.” Islam For Today. Islam For Today. Web. 06 Sept. 2011
pg. 150 ‘…jus sanguinis (right of blood) whose purpose is to maintain a measuer of ethnic homogeneity by linking nationality to ethnicity…’ Jus sanguinis, the rule that a childs citizenship is the same as the parents.
“Jus Sanguinis.” Merriam-Webstar. Web
pg 150 ‘To make matters worse, new antiterrorism laws throughout Europe have resulted in what some human rights groups term “institutional discrimination.”’ Institutional Discrimination in Europe has to do with the fact of how citizenship is obtained. In Germany for example (until the year 1999) you could be born in Germany, consider yourself German but not be a legal citizen if your parents or their parents, etc. etc. weren’t German. This was a discrimination against people who had lived there their whole life. It has now been made a comeback according gto some civil rights groups because of the antiterrorosim laws that allow for profileing.
Motadel, David. “Islam in Germany.” Euro-Islam: News and Analysis on Islam in Europe and North America. Euro Islam.Info. Web. 06 Sept. 2011
Pg. 151 ‘…As-Saheb…’ As-Saheb is the media and recruiting part of Al-Qa’ida. It is because of their videos that we were eventually able to track Bin Laden to his compound in Pakistan. “The Jawa Report: Did As-Sahab Media Get Bin-Laden Killed?” The Jawa Report V3.0 Beta. The Jawa Report. Web. 06 Sept. 2011.