Chapter 6 – Group 4

Cavalleri

p.130 “The European Union is an unprecedented geopolitical realignment the like of which has not been since the end of the Roman Empire.”

European Union:

An alliance of 27 European countries established in 1993 following the acceptance of the Maastricht Treaty by Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.  It is comprised of three parts: the European Community pillar (covers policy matters), the Common Foreign and security policy, and Justice and home affairs.  The last two parts are intergovernmental and agreements covered by them do not carry legal status.  The European is an unparalleled example of regional and political integration, it goes beyond traditional intergovernmental policy-making.

 

“European Union”  World Encyclopedia. Philip’s, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t142.e3939>

DH “European Union”   The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Ed Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press 2009. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t86.e44

“European Union.” CIA – The World Factbook. Web. 6 Sept. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?q=european+union&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=N&rls=en&biw=1132&bih=638&tbm=isch&tbnid=mEPT_KFSa_iAFM:&imgrefurl=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ee.html&docid=b0CzFiQBwZ84yM&w=447&h=303&ei=VkFnTqflHMLLgQey2rjGDA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=306&vpy=196&dur=1260&hovh=185&hovw=273&tx=163&ty=84&page=1&tbnh=133&tbnw=196&start=0&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0>.

 

Roman Empire:

A Mediterranean Empire formed after the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44BC.  Even though the Romans adapted much Greek culture, the empire was based entirely on military power and Roman law.  The creations and success of the Roman Empire remained unparalleled in Europe until the Renaissance.

“Roman Empire”  World Encyclopedia. Philip’s, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t142.e9970>

“The Roman Empire.” Nettlesworth Primary School. Web. 6 Sept. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?q=roman+empire&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=N&rls=en&biw=1132&bih=638&tbm=isch&tbnid=wuxm1gCG-upfVM:&imgrefurl=http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/nettsch/time/empire.html&docid=ccvOG1t2ZdWAcM&w=550&h=412&ei=hUFnTub1E43QgAeG2r3TDA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=140&vpy=188&dur=2303&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=186&ty=132&page=1&tbnh=127&tbnw=170&start=0&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0>.

p.131 “In the eyes of a new, borderless generation of Europeans, whom the writer T.R. Reid calls ‘Generation E’ and who “consider themselves not as Spaniards or Czechs but rather as Europeans who happen to be living in Toledo or Prague,” the EU serves as the beau ideal of the global peace and prosperity that may be possible if nation-states join together in friendship and cooperation to promote their common interests.”

 

“Generation E”:

The younger working class in the European Union that is not nationalistic, but rather identifies more with the European Union as a whole.  They do not identify with a “fatherland” or “motherland,” but rather travel from country to country feeling they only we allegiance to freedom, entrepreneurialism, and success.

Commentary: The portion of Europe that still identifies with their national identity is uncomfortable with this because they do not like the dilution of their culture and feel that boundaries would still be maintained (an example of Euro-skepticism, as Aslan mentions of p.131).  This is causing polarization within Europe because many fear the European Union to be too undemocratic.

 

“The United States of Europe: The New Superpower and the End of American Supremacy | Bookreporter.com.” Home | Bookreporter.com. Web. 07 Sept. 2011. <http://www.bookreporter.com/reviews/the-united-states-of-europe-the-new-superpower-and-the-end-of-american-supremacy>.

p.132 “The borders of what we know today as Europe were established in large part through the continent’s encounter with Islam – from the shifting battle lines of the Crusades to the  defense of the Hapsburg Empire against the Turks.”

 

Hapsburg Empire:

The Hapsburg Empire has been considered by many to be the most important dynasty in European history.  It ruled Austria from 1278 to 1918.  It became a major force when it was under the leadership of Rudolf I, who established to core dominions of Austria. The head of the Hapsburg house was usually also the head of the Holy Roman Empire from 1438 to 1806.

“Habsburg [Habspurg, Hapsburg], House of”   Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art. Ed. Gordon Campbell. Oxford University Press Inc. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t288.e800

Habsburg.” Philip’s Encyclopedia 2008. London: Philip’s, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

“Map of the Habsburg Empire of Charles V.” Ancestry.com. Web. 6 Sept. 2011. <http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wggerman/map/hapsburg.htm>.

p.132 “So, for instance, in France, the refusal to serve halal meat to Muslim kids in school cafeterias has become what Oliver Roy has called a matter of “territorial reconquest” for French nationalists, a means of exerting ‘national cohesion by asserting a purely political identity that confines to the private sphere any specific or cultural identities.’”

Halal:

Meat from certain animals (generally ones with cloven hooves) that conform to Islamic dietary laws.  The animals are killed similarly to kosher meat, where the animal is drained of all its blood after its throat is slit without prior stunning.  The opposite of halal is haram.

Commentary:

Refusal to serve dietary requirements is not protecting the country from Islamification, it is simply showing that the country’s ignorance is blinding them from actually taking rational steps to protect themselves.

“halal”  A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. Ed. David A. Bender. Oxford University Press 2009. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t39.e2580

“H Is for Halah and Haram.” Ramblim with Roger. Web. 07 Sept. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?q=halal>.

 p.132 “Visit any of the dozen or so large, ethnically isolated enclaves one finds throughout Europe—say, the British working-class town on Beeston in southern Leeds, two hundred miles north of Heathrow—and one thing becomes perfectly clear: fear of Islam in Europe goes hand in hand with fear of globalization.”

globalization:

Is the integration of the world during which it becomes more like a single community.  The term generally refers to the national economies and multinational companies that are spreading beyond borders.  It began in the late twentieth century and is mostly the result of improved technologies that allow the expedited exchange of information.

Commentary:

Globalization, like the European Union, sparks controversy.  Both blend together cultures and blur borders.  Many disagree with this because it not only dilutes the culture they are comfortable with, but lessens opportunities in more powerful countries because the choices are being spread elsewhere, thus “equalizing” the playing field.

“globalization”  A Dictionary of World History. Oxford University Press, 2000. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t48.e4068

“Globalization Backfire.” Dimas Suryo’s Blog. Web. 07 Sept. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?q=globalization>.

p.133 “Two, maybe three families – usually from a single village in Pakistan – may share a house: the white sheets hanging on the line in the front yard could be anyone’s sheets; the old bearded men entering and leaving the houses in their slippers and shalva kameez could be anyone’s uncles.”

shalvar kameez:

Or sari, is a popular Indian garment worn by both men and women.  The fabric is generally forty inches by seven yards and is made of cotton or silk.  Shalvar can more specifically refer to the loose pants worn in mostly Muslim countries, and kameez would be the long-sleeved, loose tunic worn with the pants.

Commentary:

Traditional clothing is very important to the Israeli people.  It helps provide them with a sense of identity, along with their religion.

sari.” The Thames & Hudson Dictionary of Fashion and Fashion Designers. London: Thames & Hudson, 2007. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011

 “shalwar noun”  The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Foreign Terms in English. Ed. Jennifer Speake. Berkley Books, 1999. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t33.e6503

“kameez noun”  The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Foreign Terms in English. Ed. Jennifer Speake. Berkley Books, 1999. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t33.e3477

“Eid Dresses Collection.” Shi Masti. Web. 6 Sept. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?q=salwar+kameez&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=N&rls=en&biw=1132&bih=638&tbm=isch&tbnid=tYWlk-IjC9z46M:&imgrefurl=http://www.shemasti.com/eid-dresses-collection-different-styles-of-salwar-kameez-are-famous-these-days/&docid=r5wfJT6OoRcuIM&w=377&h=1080&ei=YEJnTtD0GMPngQf-tYzSDA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=903&vpy=146&dur=625&hovh=380&hovw=132&tx=85&ty=224&page=1&tbnh=113&tbnw=41&start=0&ndsp=32&ved=1t:429,r:9,s:0>.

 p.135 “This is particularly true of so-called transformative social movements, such as Global Jihadism, which seek a complete upending of the old social order through violent revolution, often in anticipation of cataclysmic global change.”

Jihadism:

Is used to describe the beliefs and actions of a group of Muslims whose main goal is to ‘win the world for Allah’ by forcing their beliefs upon others through violence and other extreme measures.  This is the opposite of what the Muslim Orthodox deem acceptable – they do not believe in the harm of innocent people or the destruction of valuable items.

Commentary:

Because of the Jihadist groups, Muslims all over the world have earned a bad reputation and people seem unable to separate groups.  From this forms fear of Islamification, globalization, and the European Union because it works against the preservation of traditional European culture.

 Issues for today.” Need to Know? Islam. London: Collins, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

p.136 “The French Revolution (1789-1799) n particular, with its rallying cry “Liberté, égalité, fraternité,” permanently upended the time-honored orthodoxies of human society, not just in France but throughout Europe, as large groups of individuals began mobilizing, first loosely and defensively, then more organized and offensively, in response to the massive social changes taking place throughout the industrialized world.

The French Revolution:

A portion of France’s history, during which the French monarchy was removed, and government and society were changes in order to establish the First Republic.  It was caused by economic hardships and a severely separated social structure, a weak government, and ideas that arose during the Enlightenment.  One major even was the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789 (which is now a national holiday in France); it forced the government to look at the demands of the lower class and abolish the aristocracy.  During it, extremist groups rose, like the Jacobins who imposed the reign of terror, during which many French people were executed, including Louis XVI.

Commentary: As Aslan points out, the desire to rise up against social order during oppression has existed throughout history.  When linking it to Islam, this is a very prominent theme in the Qur’an.  The book says that it is wrong to kill, but if you have been oppressed, redeeming your rights and dignity should come first.

“Bastille”  World Encyclopedia. Philip’s, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t142.e1090

“French Revolution”  World Encyclopedia. Philip’s, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t142.e4351

“Images of the French Revolution.” Web. 6 Sept. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?q=the+french+revolution&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=N&rls=en&biw=1132&bih=638&tbm=isch&tbnid=3IdND-8aSMk3WM:&imgrefurl=http://teachers.ausd.net/antilla/frrevimages.html&docid=qjhGakbOTjflqM&w=525&h=412&ei=p0JnTr61CobUgQe-0uHeDA&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=666&page=1&tbnh=141&tbnw=180&start=0&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0&tx=128&ty=63>.

Liberté, égalité, fraternité:

“Freedom, Equality, Brotherhood.”  It was the main ideal and slogan of the French Revolution, but had existed prior to that period in history. It held strongly with nineteenth-century French liberals even though many ideas associated with the Reign of Terror were corrupt.  The motto inspired many movements in later decades.

Commentary:

These basic themes have resonated throughout history because they are applicable to many movements.

“Political slogans and songs”  Concise Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. by Susan Ratcliffe. Oxford University Press Inc. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t91.e4655

liberté, égalité, fraternité.” Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2002. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

“Liberté, égalité, Fraternité.” Wikipedia. Web. <http://www.google.com/imgres?q=liberte+egalite+fraternite&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=N&rls=en&biw=1132&bih=616&tbm=isch&tbnid=Lcxkrj3zQKA1MM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libert%25C3%25A9,_%25C3%25A9galit%25C3%25A9,_fraternit%25C3%25A9&docid=W_ZM8EaQfJUsAM&w=300&h=204&ei=5HZnTp_6MYPegQe6wKTrDA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=164&vpy=170&dur=61&hovh=163&hovw=240&tx=160&ty=98&page=1&tbnh=144&tbnw=200&start=0&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0>.

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