Chapter 6; Group 3

Joerger:

Deterritorialized “They seek a deterritorialized identity to match the deterritorialized world in which they live in.”

Deterritorialized is basically equivalent to the word “globalized”. Deterritorialized means boundaries have been erased, and it is possible for the idea, such as jihadism, to flow from its origin and into new areas. Aslan suggests that people who are born in a deterritorialized area, or globalized state, want to have a globalized identity. These people don’t call themselves the conventional “French” or “Muslim” they identify with something more global, such as “Jihadist”.

Kafir “rap and heavy metal songs glorifying jihad against the kafir.”

“A person who is not a muslim.”

“kafir noun”  Oxford Dictionary of English. Edited by Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2010. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t140.e0436180>

Kaffiyeh “Kids may don the Palestinian kaffiyeh.”

The  kaffiyeh is a traditional headscarf.

“Kaffiyeh”. http://renatabatata.wordpress.com/2008/07/08/kaffiyeh/. 07/08/2008.

Oriana Fallaci “…Oriana Fallacia, and Brigitte Gabriel, who make a living fanning the flames of racism and Islamophobia.”

“Outstanding journalist and best-selling novelist, who equivocates brilliantly (or many say, disastrously) between fiction and first-person reportage or autobiography, with self-incrimminating existential urgency.” Aslan does not agree with Fallaci’s writing, he believes it causes more fear and hatred in the world.

John Gatt-Rutter  “Fallaci, Oriana”  The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature. Peter Hainsworth and David Robey. Oxford University Press 2002. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t187.e1237>

Hijab “The French legislature passed a law prohibiting young Muslim girls from wearing head scarves (hijab) in public schools.” The French government not only banned the hijab, but also other religious symbols in public school, such as large crosses. The French government thought of it as a way to eliminate differences and increase individuality of children in school, but many Muslims saw it as an attack on their religion.

The Islamic world view.” Need to Know? Islam. London: Collins, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

Pluralism “Committed to democratic ideals of human rights…pluralism, and judicial reform.”

“A condition or system in which two or more states, groups, principles, sources of authority, etc., coexist”. Pluralism is seen as a fundamental part of a true democracy. Pluralism is seen in the U.S in the division of federal and state government, and in how political parties share control over legislation.

“pluralism noun”  Oxford Dictionary of English. Edited by Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2010. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t140.e0641550>

Sovereignty “The enormous responsibility of placing the very ideals at the heart of the American experience…sovereignty, and the rule of law.”

“Supreme power or authority,” and the authority to rule over something or someone. Sovereignty is seen as an essential component of a functional government and democracy.

“sovereignty noun”  Oxford Dictionary of English. Edited by Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2010. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t140.e0795070>

Rule of Law ” The enormous responsibility of placing the very ideals at the heart of the American experience…sovereignty, and the rule of law.”

“The rule of law is an ideal to which every legal system aspires, and against which it must be judged. It expresses the value of legality, which is closely linked to the equally important values of justice and freedom. Neither justice nor freedom can survive without scrupulous adherence to the rule of law, which affords the citizen protection from arbitrary power—power exercised, whether by government officials or private individuals or corporations, in a manner that pays no regard to the citizen’s legitimate interests or concerns.” Rule of law is essential to a true and legitimate democracy. 

Trevor Allan “rule of law”  The New Oxford Companion to Law. by Peter Cane and Joanne Conaghan. Oxford University Press Inc. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t287.e1924>

Hamas “As we shall see, this is certainly the case when it comes to dealing with Islamist groups like Hamas, Hizballah, and the Muslim Brotherhood.”

“A Palestinian Islamic movement founded in 1987 with the aim of establishing a Palestinian state incorporating present-day Israel and the West Bank. In 2006 Hamas defeated the more moderate Fatah in the elections for the Palestinian National Authority.” The U.S does not have very good relations with Hamas, as the U.S has supported the state of Israel over Palestine.

“Hamas”  Oxford Dictionary of English. Edited by Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2010. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t140.e0362160>

Muslim Brotherhood “As we shall see, this is certainly the case when it comes to dealing with Islamist groups like Hamas, Hizballah, and the Muslim Brotherhood.”

“An Islamic religious and political organization dedicated to the establishment of a nation based on Islamic principles. Founded in Egypt in 1928, it has become a radical underground force in Egypt and other Sunni countries, promoting strict moral discipline and opposing Western influence, often by violence.” The Muslim Brotherhood is seen as a threat because of its radical views and history of violence.

“Muslim Brotherhood”  Oxford Dictionary of English. Edited by Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2010. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t140.e0543910>
Hornbaker:
1. An Eucharist is a familiar Christian symbol or metaphor.  It is also known as the Christian service, ceremony, or sacrament commemorating the Last Supper, in which bread and wine are consecrated and consumed.  We do this in the remembrance of Jesus Christ.  The Last Supper was right before Jesus died he shared a meal with his disciples.
“Eucharist” The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Ed F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone. Oxford University Press Inc. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Sweet Briar College. 7 September 2011. http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t257.e2407

2. The Liberation Theology Movement was a social movement.  It was the church’s way of getting the community to open up to the world.  They wanted their community to move forward with the rest of the world and to try to get out of poverty.  They want to integrate into the rest of the world.  Europe does not know whether or not they should push Jihadism away or if they should be accepting of it.  They are afraid that if they are accepting of it that it will cause a revolution.

“Liberation Theology” The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church.  Ed F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone. Oxford University Press Inc. Oxford Reference Online. Sweet Briar College. 7 September 2011 http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t257.e4077

3. European Islam also known as Euro-Islam is a more modern form of Islam that is observed in European Countries.  Europe began to get overrun with Islamic immigrants so to try to control immigration Europe started making ruled for people of Islamic faith.  One of the laws that they have tried to implement is the control of the wearing of headscarves.

John Alden Williams, Shamil Jeppie, Zvi Ben-Dor Benite, Peter Mandaville, Usha Sanyal, Fred R. von der Mehden, Edward E. Curtis IV “Islam” The Oxford Encyclopedia of Modern World. Ed Peter N. Stearns. Oxford University Press, 2008. Sweet Briar College. 7 September 2011 http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t254.e803-s4

4. Extremism means the exaggerated form of the frames that are found in all social movements.  One type of religious extremism is called Jihadism.  Osama bin Laden participated in this kind of Extremism with the 9/11 attacks.  He wanted to show that the United States was fallible and vulnerable.  He did this by performing a terrorist attack on the United States on September 11, 2001.Mahmood Monshipouri

“Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda” Encyclopedia of Human Rights Ed. David P. Forsythe. Oxford University Press, 2009. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Sweet Briar College. 7 September 2011 http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t286.e25

5. A 7/7 Bomber was also known as a suicide bomber. These bombers were a product of Madrassa which is a school for scholarly learning about Islam. Madrassa is also referred to in the book as a “terrorist factory” These people who participated in the bombings thought that it was a guaranteed way to get to heaven.  They would have dreams or visions of people completing a suicide mission and then they would go to heaven.  They thought that the bombings were something that God wanted them to do.

Daniel H. Levine “Insurgent War and Peace Ethics” The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace / Nigel Young, editor.  Sweet Briar College. 7 September 2011 http://oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t296.e338

6. The Prophet Muhammad was the founder of Islam.  He was a prophet sent by God to help remind people that Allah is the only God.  He believes that there is no God but Allah.  This pertains to the Fourth Philosophy.  He was born in Mecca which is now the holy city of Islam.  People of Islamic faith travel to Mecca for prayer once a year.

“prophet” A dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Edited by Elizabeth Knowles. Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College. 7 September 2011 http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t214.e5726

“Muhammad” World Encyclopedia. Philip’s, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College. 7 September 2011 http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t142.e7839

7. Ulama refers to the those who have been trained in the religious sciences.  The sphere of operation is confined to the mosque and the Madrasa.  They are also known as the imam of the local mosque.  They lead daily prayers, they deliver the Friday sermon, and they taught the children the basics of Islamic law and Quranic recitation.  They also performed rituals for special occasions.

“Ulama: Sunni” Oxford Dictionary of Islam. John L. Esposito, ed. Oxford University Press Inc. 2003. Oxford Reference Online.  Oxford University Press. Sweet Briar College. 7 September 2011 http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t125.e2415

8. The Law of Jus Sanguinis means the right of blood.  The purpose of this is to maintain a measure of ethnic homogeneity by linking nationality to members of society.  This is a principle that the nationality of children is the same as that of their parents, irrespective of their place of birth.  This made immigrants feel like they weren’t equal members of society.

“jus sanguinis” Encyclopaedic Dictionaryof International Law  Sweet Briar College. 7   September 2011 http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t289.e1246

9. Westernized is the cause to adopt or be influenced by the cultural, economic, or political systems of Europe and North America.  They think that the people of Islam have to integrate their beliefs into European life.  If they don’t they will have to go back to their old way of life and they might even become Jihadists.

“westernized verb” Oxford Dictionary of English. Edited by Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2010. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Sweet Briar College. 7 September 2011 http://www.oxfordrefernce.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t140.e0946440

10. Caliphate is the name for the formerly central ruling office of Islam.  They are called the “rightly guided”.  Established after the death of Muhammad.  They merged religious and temporal powers.  This was considered symbolic because the actual religious authority started to be transferred to the jurists and the ulema.

Mahmoud Haddad “Caliphate” The Oxford Encyclopedia of Modern World. Ed Peter N. Stearns. Oxford University Press, 2008. Sweet Briar College. 7 September 2011 http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t254.e239

CHAPTER 6

Globalization

“The environment really is deteriorating. Globalization truly does destroy indigenous economics.”- page 137

  1. Process by which different parts of the globe become interconnected by economic, social, cultural, and political means. Globalization has become increasingly rapid since the 1970s and 1980s as a result of developments in technology, communications, and trade liberalization.

globalization.” The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather guide. Abington: Helicon, 2010. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.

  1. Process by which economic, political, cultural and environmental systems across the globe increasingly become, and are accepted as, part of an integrated and interdependent whole system.

Globalization.” The Social Science Jargon-Buster. London: Sage UK, 2007. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.

Commentary:

Globalization is often a love-hate topic. There are certainly people around the world who appreciate their expanding horizons, but even they may feel a loss of identity and self. Aslan touches on that idea when he says that one’s identity used to be based on their nationality but now revolves around other sources that they must seek out for themselves. Some have turned to extremism in varying forms, but for the sake of this discussion the most notable one is Islam.

 

“Globalization- Background, Rankings, and Articles.” Global Sherpa. Web. 7 Sept. 2011.

Nation-states

“In the eyes of a new, bodiless generation of Europeans, whom the writer T. R. Reid calls “Generation E” and who “consider themselves not as Spaniards of Czechs but rather as Europeans who happen to be living in Toledo or Prague,” the EU serves as the beau ideal of the global peace and prosperity that may be possible if nation-states join together in friendship and cooperation to promote their common interests.” – page 130-131

Nation state- a sovereign state whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in factors such as language or common descent.

The members are also united by factors like language, customs, or common decent.

“nation-state”   The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military. Berkley Books, 2001. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011.

“nation state noun”  Oxford Dictionary of English. Edited by Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2010. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011.

Commentary: Nation-states may well be the future of the world, which would prove upsetting both for protestors of globalization and those who wish their country to remain their own.

Interdependency

“For enthusiasts of globalization, the European Union offers a thrilling glimpse into a future of transnational interdependency. Its creation signals a rejection of the politics of exclusion that dominated so much of the previous centaury and embrace a new, borderless generation of Europeans…” –pages 130-131

A neo-liberal theory developed in the 1970s, which describes the ways that a group, whether a nation state, a multinational company or a non-governmental organization, deals with international issues and emphasizes economic and political inter-relationships. It challenges the Realist analysis that security dilemmas inevitably lead to conflict, postulating instead that differences can be overcome through cooperation; more cooperation leads to increased interaction and greater security.

A theory that promotes cooperation between parties when faced with differences, which will lead to more interaction and contact between the parties, thus a greater sense of security for all involved.

interdependency theory.” Chambers Dictionary of World History. London: Chambers Harrap, 2005. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.

Commentary: Interdependency is such a core piece of globalization that it needed to be further explained. The argument presented in globalization was that globalization was stealing people’s sense of self, where as interdependency is giving people a new sense of being, one that is a sort of hybrid between the differing groups. Identities are in a sense, modified, and not lost.

 

Xenophobia

(Discussing the EU) “Over the last decade, as it has forged ahead with a slew of treaties and referenda to bind member states together more fully under a federal system (and to bring ever more members on board), a wave of xenophobia and ultra nationalism has swept through Europe.”- Page130-131

The meaning of the term “xenophobia” has roots in Greek, meaning “fear of what is strange”. It can manifest itself in responses to people of different races, ethnic backgrounds, national origins, or religions. It is based on prejudice and can result in discrimination.

Xenophobia.” World of Sociology, Gale. Farmington: Gale, 2001. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.

Commentary: Xenophobia is, in its essence, fear of the “other”. Aslan speaks to the power that lies in classifying people as “other” vs. “us”. Many times the persuasion for one to classify a group as “other” comes from the fact that little is known about the group being classified. The unknown has proven to be a powerful tool when labeling both humans and societies.

 

“Xenophobia And the Makwerekwere.” | A Blog to Empower the Victims of Crime through Knowledge and Shared Stories. Web. 07 Sept. 2011.

Ultra nationalism

(Discussing the EU) “Over the last decade, as it has forged ahead with a slew of treaties and referenda to bind member states together more fully under a federal system (and to bring ever more members on board), a wave of xenophobia and ultra nationalism has swept through Europe.”- Page130-131

Extreme devotion to one’s own nation.

ultranationalism.” Collins English Dictionary. London: Collins, 2000. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.

Extreme nationalism that promotes the interest of one state or people above all others

“ul·tra·nat·ion·al·ism n.”  New Oxford American Dictionary. Edited by Angus Stevenson and Christine A. Lindberg. Oxford University Press, 2010. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011.

Commentary: Ultra nationalism seems to be a driving force behind both the actions of many groups, most notably the BNP. In some cases it leads to a dangerous close-mindedness, along with a fervor and zeal which may demonstrate a predisposition to define the unknown as “other” and take steps to defend against it.

Euro-skepticism

“The appeal of these parties and politicians derives from their ability to tap into the widespread fear among many Europeans of globalization and its consequences: the curbs on national sovereignty, the new configurations of power, the unfamiliar bureaucracies, and, most of all, the alien and exotic faces that have suddenly become part of the cultural fabric of their once homogenous landscapes. All of this has made Euro-skepticism a much more common phenomenon throughout Europe, even among Generation E.” –page 131-132

Euro skepticism refers to skepticism about Europe or European integration.

www.palgrave-journals.com/ap. “Sources of Euroskepticism.” Acta Politica. PDF
file.

Commentary: Euro-skepticism is yet another tool used to foster the feelings of “us” and “them” that have been used so successfully as a source of inspiration to provoke hostility between groups, but more than that it’s a manifest of fear towards change. Additionally, a fear of change has been seen all through time as a source of negative energy- examples like the American South and the Civil Rights Movement come to mind.

Hapsburg Empire

“The borders of that we know today as Europe was established in large part through the continent’s encounter with Islam- from the shifting battle lines of the Crusades to the defense of the Hapsburg Empire against the Turks.”- page 132

A German princely family founded by Albert, count of Hapsburg (1153). From 1440 to 1806, the Hapsburgs wore the imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire almost uninterruptedly. They also provided rulers for Austria, Spain, Hungary, Bohemia, etc. The line continued as the royal house of Hapsburg-Lorraine, ruling in Austria (1806-48) and Austria-Hungary (1848-1918).

Hapsburg.” Collins English Dictionary. London: Collins, 2000. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.

Commentary: The Holy Roman Empire was the force to be reckoned with in its day, much as the Taliban is proving to be a force to be reckoned with today. Alsan made a point of mentioning the Crusades, a Christian endeavor, and the Hapsburg Empire, a dominating force in its time. He brought them together in the same thought where he discussed establishing borders. With the struggle to determine what defines one’s sense of self in today’s world, whether it be tied to religion, ethnicity, or location, one can’t help but wonder if the two historical references were meant to mean something more.

BNP- British National Party

“For years, the BNP had been bellowing about the creeping ‘Islamification’ of Britain.”- page 133-134

Created out of a schism in the National Front, the far-right BNP emphasizes a strong racial line in its propaganda. Though based in the vicinity of South London, it is strong in West Yorkshire, the East Midlands and the West of Scotland. Its mainly male membership is active around some football grounds and draws considerable support from an element among young people. It has links with white racist groups across Europe.

British National Party (BNP).” A Glossary of UK Government and Politics. Edinburg: Edinburgh University Press, 2007. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.

Welcome to the website of the British National Party. The BNP is a patriotic, democratic alternative to the old parties that have wrecked our great country. Native British are now treated like second-class citizens in our own country, whilst asylum-seekers and immigrants are pushed to the front of the queue for housing, jobs and benefits. Millions of our people are unemployed yet the politicians continue to allow foreign workers to flood into Britain, taking our jobs or claiming benefits, costing us billions of pounds… Almost every day now, a brave British soldier is brought back from Afghanistan in a coffin. Our boys and girls are sent to fight a war that has nothing to do with Britain or British interests. Despite the illegal war in Afghanistan, Muslim extremism is flourishing on the streets of Britain. What would our War Heroes think if they could see Britain today? They fought to keep this country British. They fought to keep our nation free, sovereign and independent. They did not fight for multiculturalism, political correctness, or to see our country flooded with foreigners and our own people made into second-class citizens.

“A Message from Leader Nick Griffin MEP.” British National Party. Web. 06 Sept. 2011.

Commentary: The BNP is doing nothing to resolve any negative feelings between Britain and the Islamic world, and vice versa. Their slogans promote a belief where you’re either born English or you’re not welcome and their campaigns have targeted out minority groups to aggravate. With rhetoric like what is displayed above, it is not surprising that some British Muslims are turning towards a fundamentalist Islam, where at least they can feel accepted.

 

Updated:, Norman Tebbit Politics Last. “The Left-wing BNP Could Cost Labour Seats at the General Election – Telegraph Blogs.” Telegraph Blogs. Web. 07 Sept. 2011.

 

7/7 Bombers

“It is his conscious appropriation of religious authority that has made bin Laden so appealing to those Muslims, particularly young European Muslims like Hasib Hussain and his fellow 7/7 bombers, who are themselves mostly ignorant of Islamic law and theology- whose sense of alienation from their own religious communities makes them yearn for alternative sources of spiritual leadership.”- pages 138-139

Four suicide bombers struck in central London on Thursday 7 July, killing 52 people and injuring more than 770. The co-ordinated attacks hit the transport system as the morning rush hour drew to a close. Three bombs went off at or around 0850 BST on underground trains just outside Liverpool Street and Edgware Road stations, and on another travelling between King’s Cross and Russell Square. The final explosion was around an hour later on a double-decker bus in Tavistock Square, not far from King’s Cross.

 

“BBC NEWS | INDEPTH | LONDON ATTACKS.” BBC News – Home. Web. 07 Sept. 2011.

 

Commentary: The 7/7 Bombers injured over 770 people because they believed they were acting in the name of their people and culture, when actually they had been fed convenient pieces of Islamic law and history. Their rage stemmed from a sense of alienation and was fed with strong but unreliable rhetoric. This sort of recruiting tool can be seen from many of today’s terrorism agencies and parties like the BNP are doing nothing to alleviate the issue.

 

“7/7 London Bombings: Morgue Prepared In Advance – No Post Mortems Had Been Performed On the Dead.” Infinite Unknown. Web. 07 Sept. 2011.

Modernity

“Thus, with the rise of modernity, new collective identities began to arise, constructed not through social mandates but through conscious self-reflection- not “Who do you say I am?” but “Who do I say I am?”- page 137

A term describing the particular attributes of modern societies. A good deal of sociological work is based on the assumption of a sharp divide between pre-modern and modern societies… Modernity is distinguished on economic, political, social and cultural grounds.

Modernity.” The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. London: Penguin, 2006. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011

Commentary: Modernity turned out to be a tricky concept to define. Because it is quite multifaceted, it could easily be a challenge to accept. Many of the displaced souls around the world who are trying to find new identities (and finding them in things like Islam or Christianity) are struggling because the world is becoming more modern and they are not ready to adapt with it.

 


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