Chapter 6; Group 2

Christina Zaranka:

Page 130: “The European Union is an unprecedented geopolitical realignment the likes of which has not been seen since the end of the Roman Empire.”

Roman Empire:

“The empire centered at the city of Rome, in what is now Italy; the most extensive Western civilization of ancient times. According to legend, the empire was founded in 753  B.C. by two brothers, Romulus and Remus. Rome was at first ruled by kings. Then, about 500  B.C., the Roman Republic was established, with two annually elected consuls at its head, guided by a senate. The republic eventually weakened, and Rome passed to rule by one man — first Julius Caesar, who was assassinated in 44  B.C. His successor was Augustus, who assumed the title of emperor. Over the next few centuries, he was followed by a succession of emperors. The whole Western world eventually became subject to Rome and was at peace for roughly the first four centuries after the birth of Jesus. The empire was known for its strongly centralized government and for massive public works, such as roads and aqueducts, which helped maintain its power and efficiency. As the years passed, the Roman Empire was divided into eastern and western portions developed internal weaknesses, was invaded by outside tribes, and eventually ceased to exist.”

 

Aslan makes a reference to the Roman Empire when describing the unity the European Union has provoked. The EU unites hundreds of thousands of people, all with little more than geography in common. This is quite an outstanding and unusual accomplishment. The Roman Empire was also known for its strong structure and the efficiency that came with it.

 

 

 

 

“Roman Empire.” The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Houghton Mifflin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.

 

“Roman Empire.” The Macmillan Encyclopedia. Basingstoke: Macmillan Publishers Ltd, 2003. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

Page 130: “In the eyes of a new, borderless generation of Europeans, whom the writer T. R. Reid calls “Generation E”…”

Generation E:

“Lunden is part of the new “Generation E” — E for Europe, a continent that has been essentially without borders for most of Lunden’s and her peers’ adult lives. For them, traveling from Sweden to Spain is about as simple as it is for an American college student to take a spring break drive from the Northeast to Florida.”

 

“Generation E” refers to the children who have grown up along with the new European Union. The EU has enabled these young adults to live completely different lives than their parents. They are able to travel and interact with people from different places in a much easier way than was ever previously imagined. This Union personifies the results of our ever shrinking borders and world that come with globalization.

 

 

 

 

 

Richburg, Keith B. “A Generation on the Move in Europe.” The Washington Post 22 July 2003: A01. www.washingtonpost.com. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.

 

“European Union.” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

 

 

Page 131: “a wave of xenophobia and ultranationalism has swept through Europe.”

Xenophobia:

“The meaning of the term “xenophobia” has roots in Greek, meaning “fear of what is strange”. It can manifest itself in responses to people of different races, ethnic backgrounds, national origins, or religions. It is based on prejudice and can result in discrimination. Xenophobia is a backlash to recent immigrants. Legislation such as California’s 1994 passage of Proposition 187 which denies social services, including schooling, to illegal immigrants may express fear of assimilating newcomers into the social system. Evidence of xenophobia can be found in almost every country. During the 1980s Germans felt hostility toward people of Turkish descent whose families settled in the area to help rebuild Germany after World War II. Rwanda experienced conflict between the Hutus and Tutsis. Serbians fought against Bosnian neighbors in the last years of the twentieth century.”

 

Xenophobia is not explained when it is referenced in regards to the European Union. Xenophobia directly relates to the changes the EU caused, like immigration throughout Europe and the new accessibility Europeans had to one another. With the new freedom Europeans felt, many also didn’t like the change of nationalism, causing hatred toward unfamiliar people and beliefs.

 

 

 

“Xenophobia.” World of Sociology, Gale. Farmington: Gale, 2001. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.

 

“Racism and Racially Motivated Attacks.” Immigration and Asylum from 1900 to Present. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2005. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

Page 130: “Hence the sudden success of a host of unabashedly racist right-wing political parties such as the French National Front, the British National Party…”

British National Party:

“An extreme right-wing political party which developed in the 1980s as an offshoot of the National Front. It has won a small number of local council seats in England, notably in 2003.”

 

“Founded in 1982 as an off‐shoot of the National Front , the BNP has no seats at Westminster, Cardiff or Edinburgh, but claims some 48 seats on local councils. Its constitution commits it to seek to restore ‘the white make‐up’ of Britain by encouraging voluntary repatriation. Its stance has moved from anti‐semitism to denunciation of fanatical Islamism. Other policies include the return of capital punishment, strong disapproval of homosexuality, and withdrawal from the European Union.”

 

The British National Party was briefly mentioned by Aslan when talking about extremist movements that have risen because of the European Union. By further examining the British National Party and its motives, we can understand fully what Aslan was referring to. The British National Party is extremely racist, wanting to bring Britain back to its “white make-up” that it once was. The fact that this kind of idea could gain any strength is ridiculous and shows the loss of nationalism felt by some after the EU was formed.

 

 

“British National Party (BNP).” Chambers Dictionary of World History. London: Chambers Harrap, 2005. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.

 

“British National Party”  A Dictionary of British History. Ed. John Cannon. Oxford University Press, 2009. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  06 September 2011

 

“United Kingdom.” Philip’s World Factbook 2008-2009. London: Philip’s, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

 

 

Page 130: “…the mainstream appeal of neofascist politicians such as France’s Jean-Marie Le Pen…”

Jean-Marie Le Pen:

“French extreme-rightwing politician, founder of the National Front (FN) in 1972. His skill as a public speaker, his demagogic mixing of nationalism with law-and-order populism – calling for immigrant repatriation, stricter nationality laws, and the restoration of capital punishment – and his hostility to the European Union attracted a wide swathe of electoral support in the 1980s and 1990s. Although he progressed to the run-off round in the 2002 presidential election, he was heavily defeated by Jacques Chirac, and in the first round of the 2007 presidential election he was eliminated in fourth place.”

 

Aslan momentarily mentions Jean-Marie Le Pen, a French extremist that came into power in the 1970s. Le Pen was extremely against the European Union and everything it stood for. He did not want Europeans to be able to travel in and out of his country freely and did not want his country’s nationalistic views to change. By understanding this example, Aslan illustrates the unbelievable movements that emerged from the creation of the European Union.

 

 

 

“Le Pen, Jean-Marie (1928-).” The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather guide. Abington: Helicon, 2010. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

 

“France.” Chambers Dictionary of World History. London: Chambers Harrap, 2005. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

 

 

Page 131: “…a host of unabashedly racist right-wing political parties such as the French National Front, the British National Party, and the Freedom Party of Austria…”

Freedom Party of Austria:

“In 1994, two-thirds of the people voted in favour of joining the European Union and the country became a member in 1995. Austria became a centre of controversy in 1999, when the extreme right-wing Freedom Party, led by Jörg Haider, who had described Nazi Germany’s employment policies as ‘sound’, came second in national elections. A coalition government was formed, divided equally between the Freedom Party and the conservative People’s Party. Elections in 2002 halved the Freedom Party’s share of the vote, but the coalition continued. In 2006 elections it was replaced by a coalition between the People’s Party and the Social Democrat party.”

 

The Freedom Party of Austria was a very dangerous result of the European Union. Like the British National Party, The Freedom Party of Austria consisted of extremists who were strongly against the European Union and how it changed nationalism.  Jörg Haider, the movement’s leader, had believed in many of “Nazi Germany’s employment policies”, a concerning point of view to most, which is why the fact that he gained such a following quite shocking.

 

 

 

“Austria.” Philip’s World Factbook 2008-2009. London: Philip’s, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

 

“Austria.” Chambers Dictionary of World History. London: Chambers Harrap, 2005. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

 

 

 

Page 134:  “…the old, bearded men entering and leaving the houses in their slippers and shalvar kameez could be anyone’s uncles.”

Shalvar kameez:

“Shalwar: noun (also salwar, shalvar)   E19 Persian and Urdu (alwr). singular and in plural Loose pants worn in some South Asian countries and by some Muslims elsewhere, especially those worn by women together with a kameez.”

 

“light trousers that are loose-fitting around the waist and hips, tapering to a close fit at the ankle, traditionally worn under a kameez by women from in N India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh and by women of N Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi descent [Urdu from Persian salwār].”

 

“The band’s first major music video, ‘Dil dil Pakistan,’ provoked considerable political debate, into which even the nation’s prime minister entered. This centered on matters of image (long hair, jeans and denim jackets as opposed to the traditional shalwar kamiz) rather than directly addressing the issue of music in Islamic culture. The nationalist content of the song’s text seems not to have been seen by the Establishment as a redeeming feature.”

 

A shalvar kameez is a traditional outfit worn by Muslims. Aslan describes men wearing the clothing, while it seems to be traditionally worn by women. Not wearing the shalvar kameez can be seen as rebellious. Knowing this gives context to how religious Beeston Village, the area Aslan is describing, is.

 

 

“shalwar noun”  The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Foreign Terms in English. Ed. Jennifer Speake. Berkley Books, 1999. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.   6 September 2011.

 

salwar.” The Penguin English Dictionary. London: Penguin, 2007. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

 

“Pakistan.” Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World: Locations. London: Continuum, 2005. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.

 

 

Page 135: “Yet as it turns out, this unexceptional and unassuming second-generation Pakistani-Briton from West Yorkshire was the prototypical Jihadist.”

Prototypical Jihadist:

“The bombings in London, Bali, and elsewhere are clear evidence of the global network created through blowback of the invasion of Iraq. Even more startling is the presence and functioning of the global network in Iraq itself. By July 2007, of the 101 suicide bombers of known nationality in Iraq, 44 were Saudi, 8 were Italian, and only 7 were Iraqi.

It is likely that new organizations are being created and that existing organizations are currently being strengthened both intra- and internationally. The resilience of extant jihadist organizations despite the intense post-September 11 focus on eliminating them suggests a disconcerting ability of these institutions to learn and adapt to changing environments. It remains unclear what structures and entirely new organizations may evolve, but unfortunately the logic of blowback means that the lack of clarity will probably remain short-lived.”

 

The term “prototypical Jihadist” is very objective. Aslan uses it to describe one of the 7/7 bombers, but it is not very clear what he means.  It would appear he’s referring to this particular bombing as being one of the initial, test runs. Jihadists have evolved to change with their environment and adapt, something that the 7/7 bombers were not as experienced with.

 

 

 

Anonymous “Blowback” The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace / Nigel Young, editor.  6 September 2011

 

“Bin Laden, Osama (1957–).” The 9/11 Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011

 

 

Page 136: “Nor are [social movements] strictly secular, as evidenced by the evangelical movement.”

Evangelical movement:

“A movement for Protestant revival in the Church of England in the late 18th and early 19th century. It is stimulated partly by John Wesley’s Methodist revival and the activities of other sects (especially among the lower classes) outside the Church of England; it was also a reaction against the rationalism and scepticism of the 18th-century aristocracy, and against the atheism of the French Revolution. Politically, the movement tended to be conservative and was therefore strong among the Tories, whereas the Whigs (especially their aristocratic leaders such as Charles James Fox) retained more of the 18th-century worldliness and scepticism. In doctrine the Evangelicals were inclined to be austere, to attach importance to strength of faith and biblical guidance, and to oppose ceremony and ritual. Socially they developed a strong sense of responsibility to their fellow human beings, so that one of their leaders, William Wilberforce, devoted his life to the cause of abolishing slavery and the slave trade in British dominions, and later Lord Shaftesbury (1801-85) made it his life-work to alleviate the social and working conditions of the working classes. The leaders of the movement were laymen rather than clergy, and upper class rather than lower class, amongst whom the Nonconformist sects were more actively influential.”

 

Aslan references the evangelical movement as an example of how a social movement does not necessarily have to be secular. Although from the outside the evangelical movement would appear to be secular, it also dealt with the rights of all human beings, one follower committing to “abolishing slavery and the slave trade”. Also, the fact that the movement was not led by clergy provides further evidence that it may not have been “strictly secular”.

 

 

 

“Evangelical Movement.” The Bloomsbury Dictionary of English Literature. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Ltd, 1997. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

 

“RELIGION.” The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures: The Great Plains Region. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2004. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

 

 

Page 136: “The concept tends to be associated with issues such as mass urbanization and rapid industrialization as societies transitioned from feudalism to capitalism.”

Feudalism:

“Feudalism comes from the medieval Latin word for ‘fee’. It may be broadly defined as an agrarian political order in which coercive and judicial power is decentralized among an aristocratic ruling class (as opposed to a centralized monarchy), and as an economic order in which peasants produce most output (and are exploited by aristocrats). By implication, feudalism is characteristic of societies with low levels of urbanization, mercantile trade, and industrial production. On this broad definition feudal systems have existed during many periods of post-tribal human history, and in all major continents of the world (except Australasia). They are considered typical of agrarian societies in which imperial or despotic authority is absent—that is, rulers with the ability to treat aristocrats as their dependents. In historical materialist thinking feudalism is the last mode of production in human history which precedes capitalism.”

 

Understanding feudalism is key to understanding Aslan’s definition of modernity. He compares the “mass urbanization” that is being seen today with the movement from feudalism to capitalism.

 

 

 

“Feudalism.” Bloomsbury Guide to Human Thought. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Ltd, 1993. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.

 

“feudalism.” The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather guide. Abington: Helicon, 2010. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.

 

Hannah Bowers:

 

Secularism Theories that dominated sociological studies throughout 20th century

Page 138 “Perhaps this is because scholars are used to thinking of religion as an isolated field of study, one too often brushed aside by the secularization theories that dominated sociological studies throughout much of the twentieth century.”

Secularism Theories:

This complex and much disputed concept generally refers to disestablishment, the separation of church and state.

David B. Marshall  “secularism, or secularization”  The Oxford Companion to Canadian History. Ed. Gerald Hallowell. Oxford University Press, 2004. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  6 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t148.e1428>

 

Commentary:

The secularism theories had much to do with the concept of separation of church and state.  Aslan is saying the religion is begin pushed aside by this concept.  But in this time the separation is becoming less and religion is becoming a much larger part of everyday life.

 

 

 

Leftist Priest

Page 139  “Think of the leftist priests who led Latin America’s Liberation Theology movement, many of whom were excommunicated by the Vatican for doing so. ”

Definition of a “leftist” :

1.a member of a socialist or radical party or a person sympathizing with their views.

2. having socialist or radical political ideas.

 

leftist. (2005). In The Macquarie Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/macqdict/leftist

 

Commentary:

Aslan is describing the kind of priests he wants you to picture.  He is describing their views and what they believe in by calling them “leftist priests.”

 

Apolitical posture

Page 140   “These symbols can be appropriated from traditional religious authorities and recast in such a way as to draw a sharp distinction between the old, outmoded, arcane, and apolitical posture of the temple, the church, or …..”

Apolitical:

means to be not interested or involved in politics.

“apolitical adjective”  Oxford Dictionary of English. Edited by Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2010. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t140.e0034250>

 

Commentary:

The temple is very religious and is called apolitical because it does not want to be involved in politics.  The separation of church and state is described in the usage of “apolitical posture.”

 

Regime

Page 141  “But for movements that operate in societies where democratic institutions are either wholly absent or brutally repressed by the ruling regime, countries where legitimate opposition is simply not allowed, collective violence may be the sole means for …”

Definitions of a regime:

1. a government, especially an authoritarian one

2a system or ordered way of doing things

 

“regime noun”  Oxford Dictionary of English. Edited by Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2010. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t140.e0697400>

 

Commentary:

Aslan is saying that he democratic institutions are repressed by the ruling regime.  The institutions were controlled by the government and he is saying the violence might possibly be the only answer.

 

Eucharist

Page 141  “… Liberation Theology relied on familiar Christian symbols and metaphors (the Eucharist, the suffering of Christ, the coming of Kingdom of God) to …”

Eucharist:

Eucharist is the Christian service, ceremony, or sacrament commemorating the Last Supper, in which bread and wine are consecrated and consumed.

“Eucharist noun”  Oxford Dictionary of English. Edited by Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2010. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t140.e0275780>

 

Commentary:

Aslan is saying that the theology relied on these widely known Christian symbols.  Liberation Theology wanted to use these symbols to unite the poor side of Latin America under a single identity.

 

 

 

Sandinista Revolution

Page 142  “As Father Ernesto Cardenal, who joined the Sandinista revolution in Nicaragua….”

Sandinista Revolution:

Any member of Nicaragua’s Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN). Named for César Augusto Sandino, a hero of Nicaraguan resistance to U.S. occupation (1927-33), the group was founded in 1962 to oppose the Somoza family‘s dictatorship. They organized support among students, workers, and peasants. From bases in Honduras and Costa Rica, they attacked the Nicaraguan National Guard. They split into factions in the mid-1970s but reunited during the revolution of 1978-79 that finally succeeded in overthrowing Pres. Anastasio Somoza. A junta headed by Daniel Ortega led the Sandinista government (1979-90), which implemented literacy and community health programs. In an effort to topple the government, the U.S. imposed a trade embargo, pressured international lending institutions to withhold aid, and trained and supported the contras. The FSLN lost support over time and was voted out of power in 1990. The party regained prominence in 2006, when Ortega won another term as president.

Sandinista. (2009). In Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/ebconcise/sandinista

Commentary:

Ernesto Cardenal was a part of this strong revolution.  Cardenal wanted to fight and him having been a part of the revolution might have something to do with that.  The revolution was successful for the most part and over through President Somoza.

 

Liberalism

Page 145  “Islam in Europe has so thoroughly absorbed European ideals of religious and cultural pluralism, of individualism and human rights, of liberalism and modernity that scholars often speak of a wholly new and culturally distinct form…..”

Liberalism:

Political and intellectual belief that advocates the right of the individual to make decisions, usually political or religious, according to the dictates of conscience. Its modern origins lie in the 18th-century Enlightenment. In politics, it opposes arbitrary power and discrimination against minorities. In British history, its greatest influence was exercised in the 19th century. In the USA, liberalism has, since the 1930s, referred to a belief in government action to manage the economy and (from the 1960s on) to improve the position of women and racial minorities

“liberalism”  World Encyclopedia. Philip’s, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t142.e6728>

 

Commentary:

European ideals are being said to have liberalism.  The Islam in Europe has absorbed this liberalism from the European ideals.

 

Secularized

Page 145  “They must become secularized and Westernized.”

Definition of secularize has many meanings:

1. denoting attitudes, activities, or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis.  Contrasted with sacred.
2. (Christian Church) (of clergy) not subject to or bound by religious rule; not belonging to or living in a monastic or other order. Contrasted with regular.
3. (Astronomy) of or denoting slow changes in the motion of the sun or planets.
4. (Economics) (of a fluctuation or trend) occurring or persisting over an indefinitely long period.
5. occurring once every century or similarly long period (used esp. in reference to celebratory games in ancient Rome).

“sec·u·lar adj.”  New Oxford American Dictionary. Edited by Angus Stevenson and Christine A. Lindberg. Oxford University Press, 2010. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t183.e1288478>

 

Commentary:

Aslan is saying the Muslims must become secularized.  Muslims must become more worldly and learn the ways of others to adapt better.

 

Salafist organization

Page 146  “Even a fundamentalist, antidemocratic organization such as Europe’s arm of the Hizb ut-Tahrir – a Salafist organization that, despite its rejection of violence, nevertheless seeks to re-create the global Caliphate – is, ironically, supremely European civil rights….”

Salafist :

Another term used to refer to Islamists. Islamic movements, both moderate and those that advocate use of violence, usually refer to themselves as Salafist, meaning that they seek to return to the ways of the early Muslims.

Glossary. (2005). In Pop Culture Arab World! Media, Arts, and Lifestyle. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/abcarabpe/glossary

Commentary:

Hizb ut-Tahir is a Salafist organization.  It means that they seek to return to the ways of the early Muslims.

 

Global Caliphate

Page 146  “The European Union is the model of the global Caliphate.”
Caliph:

The chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad.

“caliph noun”  Oxford Dictionary of English. Edited by Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2010. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet Briar College.  7 September 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t140.e0117150>

 

Commentary:

Aslan is describing the European Union as a civil and religious ruler in a global sense.  A Caliph is a Muslim ruler and Aslan wants to use that emphasis as he describes the European Union.

 

Kasey Stewart:

 

Page 141: “This was exactly the challenge faced by Hasib Hussain. Like most of his peers, Hussain (as well as Tanweer and Khan) made numerous visits to Pakistan to visit his family. And like most of his peers, he found that he had little emotional connection to the country or culture of his parents.”

Hasib Hussain, like Muhammed Siddique Khan, was one of the 7/7 bombers, but unlike Khan, Hussain was only 18. His parents reported him missing the day after the bombing, and still refuse to believe their son could have created such a heinous crime.

I believe Aslan mentions Hussain in order to explain how radical Islam is accessible to Muslim youth. Although you would not particularly consider a British Muslim underprivileged, Hussain constantly came across people who treated him differently based on his looks and beliefs. Hussain offers a great way to expose Islamaphobia as the reason many Muslim youth rally together based on similar resentment toward the “Western World” that treats them so harshly.

Mcallister, J.F.O. “Hate Around The Corner.” 17 July 2005. Time Magazine Web site. 5                   September 2011 <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1083866-               1,00.html>.

 

Page 141: “A former member of Hizbut-Tahrir in Britain put the dilemma of many Muslim youths in Europe this way: ‘When I went to Pakistan I was rejected. And when I came back to Britain, I never felt like I fitted in to the wider British community. And you’ve got to remember that a lot of parents didn’t want us to fit into the British community.”

“Hizbut-Tahrir is a political party whose ideology is Islam.” It does not discriminate against gender, ethnicity, nationality, etc. when it selects its members. Aslan simply mentions this quote to explain how a non-violent Islamic party feels about how Islamophobia affects the Muslim Youth. However, without knowing what Hizbut-Tahrir stands for, one would not know they are a non-violent group.

“Uzbekistan”  A Guide to Countries of the World. Third Edition by Peter Stalker. Oxford     University Press Inc. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Sweet           Briar College.  7 September                                                                                             2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t42.e223>

Hizb ut-Tahrir. Hizb ut-Tahrir Web site . 2011. 7 September 2011         <http://english.hizbuttahrir.org/index.php/about-us>.

 

Page 142: “It boasts its own style of dress, its own slang, its own symbols or conformity, even its own music – rap and heavy metal songs glorifying jihad against the kafir.”

Kafir is derived from “kafara; to deny, refuse to believe.” The Jihadists use the term much more broadly because they include not only Non-Muslims, but those Muslims they deem infidels. Knowing the term kafir is necessary to understand what Aslan is talking about. The rap and heavy metal songs are not made to glorify jihad, but to glorify the jihad that fights the non-believers, or the kafir.

Kaffir or Kafir.” Collins English Dictionary. London: Collins, 2000. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

 

Page 142: “They may wear Osama bin Laden T-shirts as though he were a modern-day Che Guevara or pin his poster to their walls as if he were a soccer superstar; they may identify with the grievances of the Global Jihadist movement and feel a sense of solidarity with the plight of Jihadist militants around the world.”

Che Guevara was a vital part in the revolution of Cuba because he was a “theoretician and tactician of guerrilla warfare.” After the revolution, he remained as one of Castro’s “most trusted aides.” He spent his last years organizing guerrilla fighters in Congo and Bolivia.

Aslan uses Che Guevara as a synonym to modern-day bin Laden supporters to express that Bin Laden is an evil man. As an American Muslim, Aslan understands the American, as well as other “Western” countries, resentment of Castro, and therefore realizes that a parallel between the two would be appropriate to help readers understand how evil Bin Laden truly is.

Guevara, Che.” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica,                      2009. Credo Reference. Web. 06 September 2011.

 

Page 142: “Mohammed Siddique Khan’s position at the Hamara Healthy Living Centre afforded him the opportunity to seek out and identify possible candidates such as Hussain for indoctrination into Jihadism,”

Workers of the Hamara Healthy Living Centre reach out to youth in need. “Hamara is an urdu term meaning ‘Ours’ which reflects the community involvement in the planning and development of the project.”

Siddique spoke to kids who felt underprivileged on a daily basis. Kids who held resentment bottled up in them for the world they live in; because they were treated as if they did not belong there. Understanding the background that Siddique worked in, helps you understand how he rallied part of his group.

Hamara. Hamara: Bringing Communities Together . 2011. 7 September 2011 <http://www.hamara.org.uk/hamara/about/>.

 

Page 144: “[…]; as pious young men and women hectored and humiliated by pseudointellectuals such as Aayan Hirsi Ali, Oriana Fallaci, and Brigitte Gabriel, who make a living fanning the flames of racism and Islamophobia.

When defining pseudointellectuals, it would be best to split the word in to two. pseudo meaning slight and intellectual meaning learned. Understanding the meaning of pseudointellectuals is necessary in order to understand how Aslan feels about the three people listed. (see Aayan Hirsi Ali).

 

Page 144: “[…]; as pious young men and women hectored and humiliated by pseudointellectuals such as Aayan Hirsi Ali, Oriana Fallaci, and Brigitte Gabriel, who make a living fanning the flames of racism and Islamophobia.

Aayan Hirsi Ali is an author and motivated speaker to Muslim women. Hirsi Ali is a published author as well as producer of a film. Her books and film describe her travels from her home to finally becoming a Dutch politician as well as her separation from the Islamic faith.

Due to Aslan being a Muslim; one would imagine he does not like having his faith publicly slaughtered by ex-Muslims. Hirsi Ali tends to make all Muslims the victim of Islam. Throughout her childhood she was exposed to some of the more radical parts of Islam, and in a way fails to mention that does not happen in all Muslim families. The images she portrays in her books are vivid, horrible, and would lead any Non-Muslim to picture the Islamic faith as evil and corrupt. Aslan is simply trying to say she does not present both sides of Islam; the moderate alongside the radical.

2005 time 100 ayaan hirsi ali

 

Manji, Irsha. “Leaders and Revolutionaries: Ayaan Hirsi Ali .” 18 April 2005. Time               Magazine Web Site. 7 September 2011                                     <http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1972656_1972691_1973029,00.html>.

 

Page 145: “Not long after the London attacks, I went to Beeston Hill to try to speak with Hasib’s friends and family.”

Beeston Hill is a “Muslim neighborhood” located in Leeds, which is a Northern industrial city of England. Aslan mentions Beeston hill to explain how secluded these Muslim youth are from the rest of the British citizens; they are locked into a Muslim version of Britain rather than just being British. Without knowing what type of neighborhood Beeston Hill is, there is no way of understanding why Hasib felt the way he did.

Mcallister, J.F.O. “Hate Around The Corner.” 17 July 2005. Time Magazine Web site. 5                   September 2011 <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1083866-               1,00.html>.

 

Page 147: “It is within such “identity vacuums” that Global Jihadism thrives.”

Identity vacuums such as Beeston Hill are areas in which there is a very visual cultural separation. Many people feel that by classifying people, for Aslan, Muslims in particular, you provide them with a reason to self loathe or even worse begin to hate those who classified them in the first place. It is exactly how Aslan says it; it is in these areas, where religious affiliation, culture and ethnicity define who you are, that Jihadists find young men and women hurt enough to end their lives in a very powerful statement.

Freedland, Jonathan. “The identity vacuum.” 3 August 2005. Guardian.co.uk. 7 September             2011 <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2005/aug/03/race.july7>.

 

Page 147: “There has been almost unanimous support from groups such as the Muslim Council of Britain – the largest and most active of Britain’s Muslim organizations – for new government initiatives requiring foreign umams who wish to work in the United Kingdom to be proficient in English.”

The Muslim Council of Britain (MCB), work at improving the relationship between Muslims and others in Britain. Currently there are 1.2 million Muslims in Great Britain, and a constant increase in Islamaphobia.

Aslan mentions the MCB after talking about how underprivileged Muslims in Great Britain feel. However, for some of those Muslims, their parents don’t want them to assimilate into British culture and they are also unexposed to their Islamic roots. The goal of the MCB is not to take away those Islamic roots, but instead, make it possible for Muslims to be Muslim and successful citizens.

SACRANIE, Iqbal.” An African Biographical Dictionary. Amenia: Grey House Publishing,             2006. Credo Reference. Web. 07 September 2011.

 

 

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