Chapter 4 and Chapter 6-group 4

COSMIC BATTLE:

“In the evangelical imagination, such wars are not merely conflicts between armies and nations; they are cosmic battles between the forces of good, represented by America, and the forces of evil, represented by America’s enemies.” Pg. 94 Ch. 4

 

Armageddon

[ah(r)magedn]


A place mentioned in the New Testament (Rev 16.16) as the site of the final cosmic battle between the forces of good and evil in the last days. The name is possibly a corruption of ‘the mountains of Megiddo’ or some other unknown location in Israel.

Armageddon. (2005). In The Crystal Reference Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/cre/armageddon

 

Cosmic battle is defined as a war between good and evil to see who will win in the end. It is important to know what this term means before reading the book so you understand just how big of an impact this war really is. How the terrorist of 9/11 thought that they were fighting for the “good” side, instead of fighting on the side of evil.

 

EVANGELICAL:

The attacks of 9/11, which according to evangelical leaders like Mike Evans was “a dress rehearsal for Armageddon,” seemed only to confirm this view, even as the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq quickly took on the tenor of a cosmic conflict against demonic forces.” Pg. 94 Ch.4

A member of any of various Christian churches that believes in the sole authority of the literal Bible, a salvation only through regeneration, or rebirth, and a spiritually transformed personal life.

evangelical. (2002). In The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/hmndcl/evangelical

 

Evangelical is defined by being in agreement with the Christian gospel and spreading the word of Jesus Christ. In the book it talks about how evangelical leaders believe that the attacks of 9/11 are just the beginning of what is to come from Armageddon. Which is the final battle between good and evil.

 

TALIBAN:

“Bush not only elevated the United States to sacred status, he made it the agent of God’s “infinite justice” (the name he originally chose for the military campaign against the Taliban in Afghanistan).” Pg. 94 Ch. 4

The Taliban was founded in 1994 by around 2,000 Pathan Sunni Muslim theology students based in madrassas (religious schools) near the Pakistan border. The force pledged to end the internecine conflict between the divergent Mujahedin elements that had continued after the overthrow of communist leaderNajibullah Ahmadzai in April 1992. The group also pledged to establish a united and patriarchal Islamic state and to eradicate the booming drugs-trade.

Taliban. (2010). In The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather guide. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/heliconhe/taliban

 

The Taliban is a Muslim army that controlled most of Afghanistan until the U.S military stepped in, in 2001. The Taliban is the main military force of Afghanistan, it is “us” versus “them” in a battle of good versus evil.

 

JIHADISM:

“In the days and weeks following the attacks of 9/11, Bush consciously painted the conflict with Jihadism in unapologetically cosmic terms, repeatedly declaring America’s intention to “rid the world of evil.” Pg. 94 Ch. 4

‘Jihadism’ describes the beliefs and actions of Muslims of a certain type who aspire to ‘win the world for Allah’ but are prepared to force their way upon others, or hurt those they feel are ‘against Islam’ (i.e. their type of Islam). They are prepared to ignore the mainstream of their own faith in order to attack non-Muslim buildings, installations and personnel. This is a nightmare for the Muslim orthodox, who do not condone terrorism at all, especially when it involves killing innocent people (including other Muslims), committing suicide, destroying valuable infrastructure, and so on.

Issues for today. (2008). In Need to Know? Islam. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/collinsislam/issues_for_today

 

 

Jihadism is when a Muslim takes part in a “holy war” on behalf of Islam because it is their religious duty to do so. People who take part in the “holy war” of Jihadism do it because they believe it is best for their religion, and therefore they see nothing wrong with the actions that come from this belief.

 

AL-QA’IDA:

“When the commander in chief of the armed forces declares that God instructed him to remove al-Qa’ida from Afghanistan and to strike at Saddam Hussein in Iraq, as the Israeli newspaper Ha’aretz reported Bush as saying in 2003.” Pg.98 Ch. 4

An international organization of loosely affiliated cells that carry out attacks and bombings in the attempt to disrupt the economies and influence of Western nations and advance Islamic fundamentalism.

al-Qaeda. (2007). In The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/hmdictenglang/al_qaeda

 

Al-Qa’ida is a terrorist network that is against the United States, it is a group that sends money out to other terrorist groups so they can fulfill their duties.

 

MUSLIM:

“Indeed the United States’ conduct in both Iraq and Afghanistan- the evangelizing soldiers, the humiliation of Muslim prisoners forced under torture to eat pork and curse Muhammad, the Crusader rhetoric of the military officers and political leaders.” Pg. 99 Ch. 4

Muslim brotherhood-  the organization has sought to foster a return to the original precepts of the Qur’an. It grew rapidly, establishing an educational, economic, military, and political infrastructure. Threatened by its power, Egypt’s government twice banned (1948, 1954) the organization. (originated in Egypt)

Muslim Brotherhood. (2008). In The Columbia Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/columency/muslim_brotherhood

 

 

A Muslim is a believer in Islam. Islam is the main religion in the Middle East.

 

 

ISLAM:

“…it has provided Jihadists with the opportunity to successfully present themselves as the last line of defense against the forces that seek to “annihilate Islam.” Pg. 99 Ch. 4

Islam means submission to the will of Allah (God), the supreme reality. Muslims (those who practise Islam) believe that all creatures do this naturally, and that every child is therefore born Muslim, even if he or she later follows another path. Islam is the community of those who accept that there is no God but Allah, and that Muhammad is his prophet — Dr Mel Thompson

Islam. (2001). In World of Sociology, Gale. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/worldsocs/islam

Islam is the main religion in the Middle East, it is the religion of the Muslims. In order to understand that book and how the terrorist in the book act, you need to understand what their holy beliefs are.

 

PETE GEREN:

“When the secretary of the army, Pete Geren, explicitly defines the war in Iraq as a battle between America and the “radical Islam” during a commencement speech at West Point.” Pg. 99 Ch.4

Geren, Pete (Preston M. Geren III)

former United States Representative from Texas

Geren, Pete (Preston M. Geren III). (2011). In Marquis Who’s Who in America. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/marquisam/geren_pete_preston_m_geren_iii

 

 

OSAMA BIN LADEN:

“For bin Laden in particular, the war in Iraq has become a call to arms for Muslims everywhere to awake from their slumber, to embrace Islam’s own tradition of cosmic war, and to take the battle directly to the enemies of God.”

Pg.99 Ch. 4

Osama bin Laden’s Praise for the 9/11 Hijackers

Those young men did a very great deed, a glorious deed. God rewarded them and we pray that their parents will be proud of them, because they raised Muslims’ heads high and taught America a lesson it won’t forget, with God’s will.

Announced to Al-Jazeera on December 26, 2001. Bruce Lawrence (ed.), Messages to the World: The Statements of Osama bin Laden (London: Verso, 2005), p. 153.

Bin Laden, Osama (1957–). (2008). In The 9/11 Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/abcne/bin_laden_osama_1957

Osama bin Laden is the number one enemy of the United States because of the part her played in the terrorist attack of 9/11.

 

EMIGRATED:

“To those who have emigrated for the sake of God to fight for the victory of their religion, leaving their fathers and sons, leaving their family and homeland.” Pg. 100 Ch. 4

verb: (emigratedemigratingintransitive to leave one’s native country and settle in another. Compareimmigrate.

emigrate. (2001). In Chambers 21st Century Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/chambdict/emigrate

 

People from the Middle East have emigrated from their homes to America to avoid the effects of the war.

 

INTEGRATING:

“In Berlin, reports have surface of Jihadist leaders posing as parents and attending “parent-teacher conferences” at schools where they can probe into which students are doing poorly, who is having trouble integrating, who may be expelled, and so on.” Pg. 153 Ch. 6

verb (integrated, integrating)

2.transitive & intransitive to mix (people) or cause (people) to mix freely with other groups in society, etc.
3.to end racial segregation in something.

integrate. (2001). In Chambers 21st Century Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/chambdict/integrate

 

In the book it talks about how people from the Middle East are trying to come to America for a fresh start; to Integrate with other people.

 

ISLAMPHOBIA:

“As pious young men and women hectored and humiliated by pseudointellectuals such as Aayan Hirsi Ali, Oriana Fallaci, and Brigitte Gabriel, who make a living fanning the flames of racism and Islamphobia.”

Islamophobia

Prejudice against or demonisation of Muslims which manifests itself in general negative attitudes and stereotyping, discrimination, harassment and, at worst, violence. Fear or hatred of Muslims has been on the increase in recent years. The September 11th attacks on the World Trade Center and theLondon bombings provoked anti-Muslim feeling among a section of the white population, some of whom associated the activities of any disaffected young Muslims with al-Qaeda terrorism. There have been examples of Muslim communities suffering from mindless and irrational attacks, involving verbal and physical abuse.

Islamophobia. (2007). In A Glossary of UK Government and Politics. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/edinburghgukgp/islamophobia

 

After the 9/11 attacks, Americans are scared of or hate the Islamic people. It is a stereotype that Americans have, that if you are of the Muslim descent that you are or will be a terrorist.

 

MOBILIZATION:

“Mobilization occurs only when the global grievances to which they have been exposed are connected to the local grievances that they themselves experience every day as outsiders who lag far behind their fellow Europeans when it come to employment opportunities, legal representation, civil rights, and educational advantages.” Pg. 154 Ch. 6

mobilize or mobilise


verb (mobilizedmobilizing)
1.to organize or prepare something or someone for use, action, etc.
2 a.to assemble and make (forces, etc) ready for war;

mobilize or mobilise. (2001). In Chambers 21st Century Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/chambdict/mobilize_or_mobilise

 

MOSQUE:

“As foreigners forbidden to express their cultural and religious identity because of legal bans against head scarves or restrictions on the construction of mosques.” Pg. 154 Ch. 6

mosque

Building for worship used by members of the Islamic faith. Muhammad’s house in Medina (A.D. 622), with its surrounding courtyard and hall with columns, became the prototype for the mosque where the faithful gathered for prayer.

mosque. (2008). In The Columbia Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/columency/mosque

 

A mosque is a Muslim place of worship. Many people of the Muslim community in New York city have been trying to have a mosque built just a few blocks away from ground zero of the former twin towers.

 

TERRORIST:

“The perception of the suicide terrorist is that he is driven by hatred toward his target or  by a lack of value for life.” Pg. 155 Ch. 6

People who support the use of the word terrorist insist that those who commit horrific acts of violence have earned this name and that to use another, less inflammatory word implicitly lends legitimacy to moral barbarism and atrocities. At the very least, in this view, avoiding the term terrorist suggests an unwillingness to face up to the calculated brutality involved in such acts. Terrorist is thus seen as the only noneuphemism available in these contexts.

terrorist. (2005). In The American Heritage Guide to Contemporary Usage and Style. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/hmcontempusage/terrorist

Terrorist are people who commit themselves to doing acts that in turn can produce death or destruction.

 

VENGEANCE:

“The recruit offered the option of suicide terrorism as a legitimate act of war and, more important, a viable means of vengeance for his people. “ Pg. 155 Ch. 6

vengeance

/ʹvenj(ə)ns/ noun


1

punishment inflicted on somebody in retaliation for an injury received or offence felt

vengeance. (2007). In The Penguin English Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/penguineng/vengeance

 

Due to the actions that took place on 9/11 the United States thought that the best action was to fight back.

 

 

ASSIMILATE:

“In the European Union requires immigrants and the children of immigrants to strip away their cultural affinities and their “communitarian attachments” to their race, religion, and ethnicity in order to sufficiently assimilate into European society. “Pg. 156 Ch. 6

verb (assimilated, assimilating)
1.to become familiar with and understand (facts, information, etc) completely.

assimilate. (2001). In Chambers 21st Century Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/chambdict/assimilate

It is important to know what assimilate means because people are constantly trying to understand why the terrorist did what they did, why it is taking so long to get vengeance for the attacks on 9/11. The book helps you understand the other side, not just the American side.

 

NATIONAL IDENTITY:

“The native populations of the European Union are having a difficult time defininf their individual national identities, how much more arduous must that task be for immigrants and the children of immigrants? “ Pg. 157 Ch. 6

national identity as a way of differentiating one particular group from other groups. Kohn suggests that national identity draws on historical myths to legitimize itself and its place in the world; and, as a result, history is rewritten as national history, and the nation is provided with a character and a mission.

National identity. (2001). In Reader’s Guide to the Social Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/routsocial/national_identity

In the book it talks about all the different ways the Americans and the Muslims define their National Identity, and how they are so different.

 

DISCRIMINATION:

“ In the United Kingdom, the government has begun placing far greater emphasis on addressing the socioeconomic obstacles, not to mention the religious and racial discrimination, that have kept a great many Muslim immigrants from feeling like equal members of British society.“ Pg. 158 Ch. 6

Discrimination is differential or unequal treatment of a particular group. Groups are usually distinguished or divided along religious, ethnic, and racial lines. Many other groups, such as the elderly, women, and homosexuals, however, can be discriminated against as well. Discrimination can be viewed as a continuum or a scale. At one end lies less severe forms of discrimination (verbal assault, denial of resources), and at the other end, more severe forms of discrimination are located (physical aggression,genocide). All other forms of discrimination lie at some point on this continuum.

Discrimination. (2001). In World of Sociology, Gale. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/worldsocs/discrimination

The book talks about not only how Americans discriminate against Muslims but how Muslims discriminate against their own kind. It isn’t just the Americans who look down upon the Muslims, they do it to themselves as well.

 

RECONCILE:

“But undoubtedly the most significant factor in allowing American Muslims to comfortably reconcile their faith and traditions with the realities of American life is the core American belief that there need be no conflict between one’s religious and nationalist identities. “ Pg. 159 Ch. 6

reconcile

/ˈrɛkənsaɪl/ verb (t)


reconciledreconciling

1.

to bring into agreement or harmony; make compatible or consistent; to reconcile differing statements.

2.

to win over to friendliness; to reconcile a hostile person.

3.

to compose or settle (a quarrel, difference, etc.).

reconcile. (2005). In The Macquarie Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/macqdict/reconcile

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